As engines have evolved over the years, pistons have evolved with them. They're getting shorter and lighter, and use smaller skirts — the cylindrical "body" of the piston. Newer pistons are often made of aluminum alloys comprised of more silicon than in the past. This improves resistance to heat and reduces thermal expansion [source: Engine Builder].
One of the biggest advancements in piston technology is the use of different piston "tops" or "crowns," the part that enters the combustion chamber and is subjected to combustion. While older piston tops were mostly flat, many now feature bowls on top that have different effects on the combustion process.
The piston bowl is primarily used in diesel engines. Diesels don't have an ignition phase, so the piston crown itself may form the combustion chamber [source: CDX]. These engines often use pistons with differently shaped crowns, although with direct injection becoming increasingly popular, gasoline engines are starting to use them as well.
The shape of the piston bowl controls the movement of air and fuel as the piston comes up for the compression stroke (before the mix is ignited and the piston is pushed downward.) The air and fuel swirl into a vortex inside the piston bowl before combustion (or compression) takes place, creating a better mixture [source: Vegburner].
By affecting the air/fuel mixture, you can achieve better and more efficient combustion, which leads to more power. The bowls have a variety of different shapes — some are also designed to optimize fuel economy.
With direct injection becoming the hottest new technology for gasoline engines, expect uniquely-bowled pistons to become more and more popular.
For more information about piston shape and combustion, follow the links below.
- Carley, Larry. "Piston Design, an Evolutionary Tale." Engine Builder Magazine. April 1, 2003. (Dec. 7, 2011) http://www.enginebuildermag.com/Article/1948/piston_design_an_evolutionary_tale.aspx
- CDX Online Textbook. "Engine Components: Pistons." (Dec. 8, 2011) http://www.cdxetextbook.com/engines/comp/pistons/pistons.html
- University of Windsor. "Piston Design." (Dec. 7, 2011) http://courses.washington.edu/engr100/Section_Wei/engine/UofWindsorManual/Piston%20Design.htm
- Vegburner. "DI Combustion Chamber Design." (Dec. 8, 2011) http://vegburner.co.uk/DIcombustion.html