One of the biggest trends in the auto industry is miniaturization. In order to minimize exterior space while keeping a car's interior roomy and comfortable for passengers and storage, carmakers are looking for innovative ways to combine electronics and free up as much space as possible. With a team of 500 engineers and designers and 34 new patents for the Nano, Tata Motors had this exact trend in mind -- the car is only about 10 feet (3.1 meters) long and 5 feet (1.6 meters) tall, but it still has four doors and can fit up to five people inside.
Tata took several steps to keep the car both affordable and reliable. Light yet strong steel is used for the car's body, and the tires are pushed to the far corners of the frame, creating the maximum amount of space on the inside. Super strong glue keeps the car together instead of traditional welding techniques, and small touches cut down on costs and weight -- the Nano has one windshield wiper instead of two, and the automakers hollowed out most of the steel from the steering column.
The engineers also took the working parts of the Nano into consideration when thinking about space. The 30-horsepower engine, gears and four-speed manual transmission are found in the back of the car, not the front, very much like that of the original Volkswagen Beetle -- this gives the Nano its boxier look. At 623-cc (cubic centimeters), the gasoline engine is smaller than typical car engine sizes, but still very efficient, reaching speeds up to 60 miles per hour. The company says the Nano should get up to 50 miles per gallon, excellent performance compared to most other cars. The United States, for instance, hopes to increase the industry average to only 35 miles per gallon by 2020, which makes the Nano look far ahead of its time.
The $2,500 price tag will only get you the most basic model of the Nano -- one with no air conditioning, for example. But the more expensive versions would only go up to about $4,000, which is still less expensive than the Suzuki Maruti 800, now the world's second-least expensive car. With all the cost-cutting, Tata Motors might not even make a profit with the Nano. Materials such as steel and rubber have risen in the past few years, but Ratan Tata is keeping his promise of the availability of a $2,500 car. Instead, future models and innovation hope to bring capital to the company -- its engineers hope to introduce new diesel version of the Nano by next year.
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