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How Car Steering Works

By: Karim Nice  | 

The Future of Power Steering

Since the power-steering pump on most cars today runs constantly, pumping fluid all the time, it wastes horsepower. This wasted power translates into wasted fuel.

You can expect to see several innovations that will improve fuel economy. One of the coolest ideas on the drawing board is the "steer-by-wire" or "drive-by-wire" system. These systems would completely eliminate the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the steering, replacing it with a purely electronic control system. Essentially, the steering wheel would work like the one you can buy for your home computer to play games. It would contain sensors that tell the car what the driver is doing with the wheel, and have some motors in it to provide the driver with feedback on what the car is doing. The output of these sensors would be used to control a motorized steering system. This would free up space in the engine compartment by eliminating the steering shaft. It would also reduce vibration inside the car.

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General Motors has introduced a concept car, the Hy-wire, that features this type of driving system. One of the most exciting things about the drive-by-wire system in the GM Hy-wire is that you can fine-tune vehicle handling without changing anything in the car's mechanical components -- all it takes to adjust the steering is some new computer software. In future drive-by-wire vehicles, you will most likely be able to configure the controls exactly to your liking by pressing a few buttons, just like you might adjust the seat position in a car today. It would also be possible in this sort of system to store distinct control preferences for each driver in the family.

In the past 50 years, car steering systems haven't changed much. But in the next decade, we'll see advances in car steering that will result in more efficient cars and a more comfortable ride.

For more information on steering systems and related topics, check out the links that follow.

Car Steering FAQ

What is the function of steering system?
Your car's steering system is designed to allow you to guide the direction of the vehicle and stay in control of its movement.
What does the steering wheel do?
Your steering wheel translates your directional movements to the vehicle's steering system, turning and moving the front wheels to match the motion of the steering wheel.
What is the difference between power steering and normal steering?
A manual steering setup features a rack and pinion, which work to translate the movement of the steering wheel into the movement of the wheels. Power steering is a more precise take on a manual steering setup, offering more responsiveness, less resistance and even electrical components. Power steering is also easier to control than manual steering.
What are the 3 main parts of a steering system?
Three of the most important parts of a steering system are the pump, the pump pulley and the rotary valve.
Can you drive without power steering?
It is possible to drive without power steering. However, if your vehicle has power steering and the steering system is malfunctioning, you don't want to drive your car. Instead, to limit the potential damage, take your car to a mechanic as soon as possible.

Originally Published: May 31, 2001

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