Understanding the concept of the gear ratio is easy if you understand the concept of the **circumference** of a circle. Keep in mind that the circumference of a circle is equal to the diameter of the circle multiplied by **Pi** (Pi is equal to 3.14159...). Therefore, if you have a circle or a gear with a diameter of one inch, the circumference of that circle will be 3.14159 inches.
The following figure shows how the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 1.27 inches is equal to a linear distance of 4 inches:

Most gears that you see in real life have teeth. The teeth have three advantages:

- They prevent slippage between the gears - therefore axles connected by gears are always synchronized exactly with one another.
- They make it possible to determine exact gear ratios - you just count the number of teeth in the two gears and divide. So if one gear has 60 teeth and another has 20, the gear ratio when these two gears are connected together is 3:1.
- They make it so that slight imperfections in the actual diameter and circumference of two gears don't matter. The gear ratio is controlled by the number of teeth even if the diameters are a bit off.